Chance To Hit (often called "To Hit", for simplicity) is a game concept used in Master of Magic to determine the accuracy of all Physical Damage and Area Damage attacks. In essence, it helps determine how much damage such an attack would inflict on its target.
The attacker, be it a spell or a unit, has a certain To Hit score which is a primary component in determining how many points of Damage will be inflicted on the target. The process of inflicting that damage involves one or more random rolls, meaning that an attacker's To Hit score only represents statistical probabilities of inflicting Damage.
During a Physical Damage or Area Damage attack, the attacker is required to make a number of To Hit rolls, which determine how many hits are registered against the target. The defender may or may not be allowed to make To Block rolls in order to deflect some or all of these registered hits. Each hit that is not deflected will cause 1 point of Damage on the target.
To Hit values are measured on this wiki in increments of 10%, which correlates with the statistical chance they represent. The default To Hit score of any unit or spell is 30%, though units often have bonuses or penalties that increase or decrease this value. The higher the value, the better chance that unit or spell has to inflict more Damage on this target, though it is only one of many factors involved in determining damage output.
The Chance To Hit of an attack is a measure of its accuracy. Whether it represents how well a unit uses its weapons, or how accurate a spell is in hitting its designated target, the To Hit value has similar implications regardless of the source of the attack.
The use of Chance To Hit in Master of Magic adds an important aspect of randomness to Physical Damage and Area Damage attacks (which are usually the most common types of damage in the game). It means that the results of such an attack depend not only on the attacker's strength or the defender's properties, but also on a powerful random element that makes luck an important factor.
As a result, even a powerful attacker may, occasionally, inflict little or no damage - or alternatively inflict more damage than average - on the same target. Note also that this is not the only random factor involved in such attacks, since the defender's To Block rolls, which are quite similar to To Hit rolls, have a similar importance.
The Mechanism Edit
The To Hit value comes into play whenever a Physical Damage or Area Damage attack is performed by any unit or spell against any target. To Hit is used as a percentage chance of inflicting "Registered Hits" on said target, which will later be translated into actual Damage to that target, if they can get through the target's defenses.
Registered Hits Edit
Whenever a Physical Damage or Area Damage attack is performed, against any target, the attack's source must make a series of To Hit rolls in order to determine how effective the attack was. The number of rolls made differs based on the source of the attack, as does the chance of success with each roll.
The number of To Hit rolls is equal to the strength of the attack. For example, a unit with 3 Melee Attack strength which makes a Melee Attack on any target will make 3 To Hit rolls. Spells work similarly, so a spell with a strength of 5 will make 5 To Hit rolls against its target. Note that Multi-Figure Units may make more rolls against the target, since each Figure in the unit attacks the target simultaneously.
Each roll results in a value between 1 and 100. This is then compared to the attacker's current To Hit score (with modifiers taken into account) in order to determine whether that roll is successful. If the roll is equal to or lower than the attacker's To Hit score, then that roll was successful.
After making all the necessary rolls, the game tallies up all successful rolls. This is the number of "Registered Hits" that the attack managed to inflict on its target. At this point, the target often (but not always) gets to make a set of To Block rolls to reduce the number of "Registered Hits". After this, any Registered Hits remaining are immediately translated into points of Damage and inflicted on the target. Each Registered Hit equals 1 point of Damage.
The maximum possible number of Registered Hits on the target is therefore exactly equal to the strength of the attack. Returning to the example above, a unit with 3 may make anywhere between 0 to 3 Registered Hits on its target, depending on how many To Hit rolls were successful. If the unit's To Hit score is 100%, it will always inflict 3 Registered Hits, since it will automatically succeed in each and every rolls. Conversely, if the unit's To Hit score was 0%, the unit automatically fails each roll and therefore inflicts 0 Registered Hits. Values in between give the unit a certain chance to succeed or fail in each roll, and thus will inflict different number of Registered Hits each time it attacks, anywhere between 0 and 3.
This allows us to estimate the average number of Registered Hits that a unit or spell will inflict on its target, which can be done by multiplying the unit/spell's attack strength by its To Hit score. For example, if the attack has a strength of 3, and a To Hit score of 60%, then it will (on average) inflict 3 * 60% = 1.8 Registered Hits on its target. Note that this is before the target gets to try and deflect those Registered Hits, so the final result will often be very different. Nonetheless, comparing the attacker's statistical average to the defender's blocking ability gives a good indication of how much damage can be expected.
Chance To Hit Score Edit
For units, a variety of special effects (often bestowed by innate properties or Unit Enchantments) may alter this value up or down as appropriate. Some units, for example Experienced Heroes, may reach 100% To Hit (or higher!). In certain situations, a unit may drop to 10%, but no lower than that.
A unit's actual To Hit score is not displayed anywhere. However, modifiers to a unit's To Hit score are usually displayed in the unit's details panel - specifically, in the unit's Abilities List at the bottom of that panel. The modifier is displayed as a number next to an icon of a yellow cross-hair on a golden background:
Modifiers are measured in-game in increments or decrements of 1. For example, a unit may have a modifier of +1, +2, +3 or -1, -2, -3 and so on, indicating relative adjustment of the unit's To Hit score above or below the default value as appropriate. Note however that on this wiki, To Hit is measured in increments of 10%, so a +1 bonus in game is translated into a +10% bonus on this wiki.
Note: On this wiki, To Hit is classified as one of the primary unit attributes - i.e. the same as Melee Attack Strength, Defense, Resistance and so forth. It is not considered a Unit Ability despite the fact that the indicator appears in the unit's Abilites List.
Chance To Hit > 100% Edit
- It is sometimes possible, especially with highly- Experienced Heroes wielding very powerful Magical Items, for a unit to achieve a To Hit score higher than 100%.
- Such a score has no practical benefit over a To Hit score of 100%, since at 100% the unit is already guaranteed to succeed in any To Hit roll it makes.
- However, having more than 100% To Hit can serve as a "buffer" to protect the unit against ill-effects that might lower its To Hit score. If the unit's To Hit score is high enough, the ill-effect would not be able to drop it below 100%, meaning that the unit's combat performance is not adversely affected.
- Even more importantly, units using a Ranged Missile Attack or Ranged Boulder Attack will often suffer To Hit penalties when attacking distant targets. With a To Hit score above 100%, such a unit can ignore distance penalties altogether, remaining just as effective when firing clear across the battlefield.
- For example, imagine Alorra the Elven Archer. When firing across the battlefield, Alorra will always suffer a -30% To Hit penalty due to the distance involved, making her shots less effective. However, when she reaches a very high Experience Level and is equipped with a powerful Bow, she can achieve a To Hit score of 130%. This means that even when suffering those distance penalties, her score is reduced only to 100%, allowing her to be just as effective as she would be against a nearby target.
To Hit Modifiers Edit
Raising a unit's To Hit value means that the unit will inflict, on average, a greater portion of its attack strength on the enemy, while lowering the value means that the unit will struggle to inflict as much damage as it normally would. Therefore, beneficial spells and effects are geared towards raising the value, while maledictions and Curses often lower it.
When a unit's To Hit score has been modified from the default, an icon will appear in its Abilities List to indicate this. To view this, right-click the unit and examine the list of abilities and modifiers in the bottom half of the window that pops up for you.
Note that modifiers do not always appear in the unit's details window. They only appear if they apply equally to each of the unit's Attack Types.
- Innate unit bonuses that are permanent and immutable.
- Innate Unit Abilities that this unit or its target possess by default.
- Hero Abilities that improve with Experience Level.
- Experience Level of a Hero or Normal Unit.
- Unit Enchantments and Unit Curses affecting the unit or its target.
- Combat Enchantments and Global Enchantments currently in effect.
- Magical weapons (or better) currently held by a Normal Unit.
- Magical Items with certain Item Powers currently held by a Hero.
The icon in the unit's Details Panel will indicate only the total modifier to the unit's To Hit score, and does not list each and every effect. This may sometimes make it harder to determine why the unit is enjoying/suffering a certain amount of modification. Careful study of the unit's properties and external effects may be necessary to determine this.
Innate Unit Bonuses Edit
A large number of units, primarily Fantastic Creatures, enjoy an innate bonus to their To Hit score, which represents superior or super-natural accuracy. In addition, some Normal Units possess a similar innate bonus thanks to Racial benefits.
Such a unit will always have a certain base modifier to its To Hit score, above the default 30%, regardless of what else affects it. The innate modifier cannot be removed, and will never be missing for any reason, regardless of how the unit was brought into the game.
- Most High Elven Normal Units except the Catapult and Trireme racial +10% (for a base 40% To Hit).
- Elven Lords and Minotaurs enjoy a bonus of +20% (for a base 50% To Hit).
- Most Uncommon Fantastic Creatures possess a +10% To Hit Bonus (for a base 40% To Hit).
- Most Rare Fantastic Creatures possess a +20% To Hit Bonus (for a base 50% To Hit).
- Most Very Rare Fantastic Creatures possess a +30% To Hit Bonus (for a base 60% To Hit).
Innate Unit Abilities Edit
Two Unit Abilities in the game will alter the To Hit score of an attacker or defender as appropriate. These are Lucky and Invisibility. A few units possess these abilities by default, meaning that the ability is permanent and immutable, and cannot be added or removed throughout the unit's existence.
The Lucky ability, among its other effects, gives the unit a +10% To Hit Bonus in each and every Physical Damage attack it makes. This may seem like a small amount, but can have a very strong impact for many of the units possessing it.
The Invisibility ability works somewhat differently. Instead of augmenting the unit's To Hit score, it actually decreases the To Hit score of any opponent that attempts to attack it, by -10%. This makes the unit harder to kill. Note, however, that opponents possessing Illusions Immunity or affected by True Sight will not suffer this penalty at all.
- All Halfling Normal Units, except the Catapult, possess the Lucky ability by default.
- The vast majority of Heroes may pick Lucky as one of their Random Abilities at the start of the game.
- The Dark Elven Nightblades possess Invisibility by default.
- The Air Elemental and Night Stalker possess Invisibility by default.
- Shin Bo the Ninja possesses Invisibility by default.
Note: Invisibility can also be added to a unit that does not possess it by default, though the use of one of two different spells. This is described below.
Hero Abilities Edit
Several Heroes in the game possess the Blademaster Hero Ability. This ability provides a +5% To Hit bonus for each of the Hero's current Experience Levels. Therefore, a Blademaster Hero with 8 Experience Levels, for example, receives a bonus of +40% To Hit.
Blademaster is a fairly uncommon Hero Ability, possessed by default only by a few Heroes. However, due to the process of selecting Random Abilities, a single game may feature more or fewer Heroes with this ability.
Note that Blademaster's bonuses are smaller than +10% per level. Since the total bonus is rounded down to the nearest number divisible by 10 (since To Hit is normally measured only in increments of 10%) this means that the Hero will not enjoy an actual benefit with each level. For example, a Blademaster Hero with 9 Experience Levels has a bonus of 5% * 9 = +45%, which is immediately rounded down to +40% - the same bonus he/she would have at Experience Level 8. No bonus was gained, since the new total is not divisible by 10%.
- Alorra, Mortu, Shalla, Shin Bo, Shuri and Tumu all possess Blademaster by default.
- All of the above may randomly acquire Super Blademaster as one of their Random Abilities.
- Over a dozen other Heroes may randomly acquire Blademaster or even Super Blademaster as one of their Random Abilities.
Experience Level Edit
A unit's current Experience Level may grant it several different bonuses to its basic combat properties, and one of these bonuses is a To Hit bonus that grows as the unit's level increases. Only Heroes and Normal Units accumulate Experience.
To Hit bonuses are given only at the higher Experience Levels. By the time a unit reaches such a level, it is already significantly more dangerous than it was when first created, and these bonuses can serve to turn even a very weak unit into a rather dangerous one.
Normal Units usually receive a +10% To Hit bonus once they have reached Elite level. With the Warlord Retort or Crusade spell, Normal Units can reach Ultra-Elite level to gain +20% To Hit. With both Warlord and Crusade in effect, Normal Units may reach Champion level, gaining the maximum bonus of +30% To Hit.
Heroes begin receiving To Hit bonuses at Captain level, and the bonus will grow every 3 levels after that. In other words, they receive +10% To Hit at Captain level, +20% To Hit at Lord level, and +30% To Hit at Demi-God level. Note of course that Heroes may also gain bonuses from the Blademaster ability at various levels, as explained earlier. These are cumulative with the regular bonuses from Experience Level.
Unit Enchantments and Curses Edit
There are three different spells of this category that affect To Hit, and each does so in a completely different fashion. Nonetheless, they can have a crucial impact on a unit's combat performance as a result.
In all cases, however, the modifier applies only while the spell remains in effect. Enchantments and Curses can be dispelled by enemies or even cancelled by the caster himself, so they are not truly permanent.
Holy Weapon, a Common Unit Enchantment from the Life Realm, will equip the targeted Normal Unit with Magical Weapons. This has several effects, one of which is a flat +10% To Hit bonus, which applies to the unit's Melee Attack, Ranged Missile Attack and Ranged Boulder Attack (if any are available), but not to its Magical Ranged Attack, Thrown Attack or Breath Attack. Furthermore, note that the bonus from Holy Weapon is actually cumulative with Magical Weapons acquired in other ways, so a unit possessing both will have +20%.
Invisibility, a Rare Unit Enchantment from the Sorcery Realm, will add the Invisibility property to the targeted unit. This has many important effects; but as described earlier in this article, it will give any opponent that attacks this unit a -10% To Hit penalty. Opponents possessing Illusions Immunity or True Sight ignore this effect.
Vertigo, an Uncommon Unit Curse from the Sorcery Realm, is targeted at enemy units to make them less effective in combat. The affected unit receives a -20% To Hit penalty, along with -1 Defense. Note that the targeted unit may Resist the spell, and thus suffer no penalty at all, and that Vertigo lasts only until the end of combat.
Combat and Global Enchantments Edit
Combat Enchantments and Global Enchantments are also capable of affecting units' To Hit scores. However, unlike Unit Enchantments and Curses, they do so in a blanket fashion - affecting a large number of units simultaneously. This makes Combat Enchantments and Global Enchantments extremely cost-effective, and potentially quite dangerous.
Again, these spells will apply a temporary modifier to the unit's To Hit value, which persists only as long as the spell remains in effect. For Combat Enchantments, this is until the end of the current battle or until the enchantment is dispelled. Global Enchantments have no set duration, and can either be dispelled by the enemy or cancelled by their own caster.
Crusade, a Very Rare Global Enchantment from the Life Realm, has been discussed earlier in this article. When it is in effect, every friendly Normal Unit receives one bonus Experience Level. As a result, units require fewer Experience Points to reach Level level, whereupon they receive their first To Hit bonus of +10%. Crusade also allows units to reach Ultra-Elite Level for +20% To Hit. If the wizard also possesses the Warlord Retort, units reach these levels even earlier, and can reach the maximum level of Champion for +30% To Hit.
Holy Arms is another important Very Rare Global Enchantment from the Life Realm. While it is in effect, every friendly Normal Unit and Hero enjoys the same effects bestowed by Holy Weapon (discussed earlier), which give the unit a Magical Weapon. One of the effects is a +10% To Hit bonus to all the affected units, which is cumulative with Magical Weapons acquired through other means. As with Holy Weapon, this bonus applies only to the unit's Melee Attack, Ranged Missile Attack and Ranged Boulder Attack, but not to its Ranged Magical Attack, Thrown Attack or Breath Attack.
Prayer and High Prayer are two non-stacking Combat Enchantments from the Life Realm, which provide a +10% To Hit bonus to all friendly units on the battlefield, among other bonuses. If both are in effect, units still receive only +10%. Prayer is an Uncommon Spell, while High Prayer is a Very Rare Spell, with the latter providing much better ancillary bonuses than the former.
Warp Reality, a Rare Combat Enchantment from the Chaos Realm, has a more tactically-complicated effect. It will apply a -20% To Hit penalty on all units on the battlefield, friend or foe, that are not associated with the Chaos Realm. This normally applies to all Normal Units, Heroes, and non-Chaos Fantastic Creatures.
Finally, Mass Invisibility is a Very Rare Combat Enchantment from the Sorcery Realm, which applies the same effect as the Invisibility spell on all friendly units on the battlefield. As a consequence, any enemy unit attacking a friendly unit receives a -10% To Hit penalty, unless that enemy unit possesses Illusions Immunity or True Sight.
Magical Weapons Edit
The bonus does not apply to the following attacks, if the unit even has them at all:
Magical Items Edit
Heroes may be equipped with a variety of items that can boost their combat performance in a myriad of different ways. Some items can be imbued with a To Hit bonus of a certain magnitude, which is then applied to the Hero holding that item.
Only certain types of Magical Items can receive a To Hit bonus, including all weapon types as well as Jewelry. Armor may not have any To Hit bonuses imbued into it, and no armor with such a bonus will ever be found in Treasure piles.
Magical Items with a To Hit bonus have an important caveat: they will only apply that bonus to some of the Hero's attacks, but not all of them:
- The To Hit bonus on a Bow only applies to the Hero's Ranged Missile Attacks.
- The To Hit bonus on an Axe only applies to the Hero's Melee Attacks. Even though attack strength bonuses do apply to the Hero's Thrown Attacks as well, the To Hit bonuses do not.
- The To Hit bonus on a piece of Jewelry only applies to the Hero's Melee Attacks and Ranged Attacks (of any kind), but not to Thrown or Breath attacks.
The bonus remains in effect as long as the Hero is wearing the item. If the item is removed, the bonus is lost. The bonus cannot be removed in any other way.
Possible Item To-Hit Bonuses Edit
- During Item Crafting, several important factors determine which To Hit bonuses, if any, may be placed on the item. This includes the spell being used to craft the item (be it Enchant Item or Create Artifact), the type of item being created, and the amount of Mana the caster wishes to spend.
- Items created with Enchant Item cannot contain any To Hit bonuses whatsoever, regardless of type. Only items created with Create Artifact may contain such bonuses at all.
- Wands may only contain a +10% To Hit bonus. Axes and Jewelry may be imbued with either +10% or +20%. Swords, Maces, Bows and Staves may be imbued with anywhere up to +30% To Hit.
- For weapons, each +10% bonus increases the weapon's value (and thus the amount of Mana required to create it) by 400, making To Hit one of the most expensive bonuses that can be placed on any item. For Jewelry this is even more expensive, at a rate of 800 per +10%. A Jewelry item with nothing but a +20% To Hit bonus costs a whopping 1,650 Mana!
Ranged Penalties Edit
The penalties are as follows:
|Range||To Hit Penalty|
|1 Tile (adjacent)*||No Penalty|
|2 Tiles||No Penalty|
|3,4 or 5 Tiles||-10% Penalty|
|6,7 or 8 Tiles||-20% Penalty|
* "Adjacent" means the attacker and the target are right next to each other (including diagonals).
This means that units possessing a Ranged Attack that's subjected to such penalties will have a strong incentive to close the distance to its target before using that attack. Only powerful ranged attackers can afford to pelt the enemy from far away.
Also note that the presence of the Long Range ability on a unit puts an absolute cap on these penalties. Such a unit will not suffer more than -10% To Hit from distance to its target, so a shot from 8 tiles away or even more is just as effective as a shot from 3 tiles away.
Counterattack Penalty Edit
If a unit undergoes more than two attacks within one round, then its counterattacks receive a temporary To Hit penalty. It's -10% for the third and fourth attack, -20% for the fifth and sixth attack, and so on. Note that this penalty will not affect the unit, if it initiates the attack.
- A Hydra is attacked by 2 units of Gnoll Bowmen and 4 units of Wolf Riders. The higher speed of the Wolf Riders will be used to initiate the attack twice and simultaneously in one round. This has not only the advantage that the Hydra can't use its Breath attack, its counterattacks will also become weaker against the later Wolf Riders.
- A Hydra has an innate +10 % To Hit bonus which means that each Sword icon will usually have a 40 % chance of working. The 2 units of Gnoll Bowmen will attack first with their Ranged Attack. This will unlikely cause any damage. However, it will help to reduce the damage inflicted to the Wolf Riders: After these 2 incoming attacks, the Hydra will already suffer a temporary -10% penalty to its upcoming counterattacks in this counterattack round. Now, the first unit of Wolf Riders will initiate the attack twice: In both counterattacks, the Hydra's Sword icons will only have a 30 % chance of working thanks to the previous attacks of the Bowmen. After these 2 further incoming attacks, the Hydra will suffer a temporary -20% penalty to its upcoming counterattacks.
- Now, the second unit of Wolf Riders will initiate the attack twice: This time, the Hydra's Sword icons will only have a 20 % chance of working in both counterattacks, and in the aftermath the temporary To Hit penalty is increased to -30%. Now, the third unit of Wolf Riders will initiate the attack twice: The Hydra's Sword icons will only have a 10 % chance of working in these 2 counterattacks. Since the success chance of a roll cannot fall below 10 %, each further temporary To Hit penalty will basically have no effect: If the fourth unit of Wolf Riders attack, the Hydra's Sword icons will still have a 10 % chance of working. If the Hydra should survive all these attacks, then the temporary To Hit penalties are removed at the start of the Hydra's turn. So, each of its Sword icons (and Breath Breath icons) will have the usual 40 % success chance again.
Table of To Hit Modifiers Edit
|unit / property||To Hit||additional informations|
|most High Elf units||+10%|
|all Halfling units||+10%||, via Lucky|
|Elven Lords, Minotaurs||+20%||only normal units with +2 To Hit|
|Elite||+10%||requires 120 EP|
|Ultra-Elite||+20%||only reachable with Warlord retort or Crusade spell|
|Champion||+30%||only reachable with both Warlord and Crusade|
|unit||To Hit||additional informations|
|most common creatures||+0%|
|most uncommon creatures||+10%|
|most rare creatures||+20%|
|most very rare creatures||+30%|
|object||To Hit||additional informations|
|Lucky||+10%||Lucky also increases and reduces opponent's|
|Blademaster||+x%||+5% per Level, rounded down to multiple of 10%|
|Super Blademaster||+x%||+7.5% per Level, rounded down to multiple of 10%|
|Captain||+10%||requires 60 EP|
|Lord||+20%||requires 300 EP|
|Demi-God||+30%||requires 1,000 EP|
|Partial To Hit|
|object||To Hit||additional informations|
|Magic Weapons||+10%||Melee, Missile, Boulder only (not *, , )|
|Holy Weapon||+10%||same effect as Magic Weapons and cumulative|
|Jewelry||+x%||Melee and Ranged only (not , in v1.31)|
|Sword, Mace||+x%||Melee only|
|Axe||+x%||Melee only (not Thrown in v1.31)|
|Bow||+x%||Ranged Missile only|
|Staff, Wand||+x%||Ranged Magic only|
|Spells / Abilities that modify To Hit|
|object||To Hit||additional informations|
|Lucky||+10%||Lucky also increases and reduces opponent's|
|Prayer, High Prayer||+10%||(High) Prayer also increases and reduces opponent's|
|Vertigo||-20%||target has chance to resist|
|Warp Reality||-20%||units not belong to Chaos Realm receive -20% To Hit|
|Spells/Abilities that modify Opponent's To Hit|
|object||To Hit||additional informations|
|Invisibility||-10%||Illusions Immunity cancels this effect|
|Lucky||-10%||Melee only (not , , ), effect removed in v.140n|
|Prayer, High Prayer||-10%||Melee only (not , , ), effect removed in v.140n|
Note: Blur doesn't affect To Hit. Instead it makes 10% of otherwise successful enemy hits barely miss. This effect is weaker than a -10% To Hit penalty. Eldritch Weapon doesn't affect To Hit either. Instead it reduces the opponent's ability To Block by -10%.
Note: The unofficial 1.40 Insecticide patch makes some changes regarding To Hit effects:
- Magical Weapon (Alchemy retort or Alchemists' Guild) and Holy Weapon increase To Hit of Thrown attacks by +10% each.
- Jewelry and Axes increase To Hit of Thrown attacks.
- Jewelry increases To Hit of Breath attacks.
- Lucky and (High) Prayer will not decrease enemy's To Hit by -10% anymore in melee combat.